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As a medical expert I advise people that 30 minutes of physical exercise 5 days a week will maintain good health. Physical exercise can be divided into 2  main formats:


CARDIOVASCULAR - aerobic with heart rate increase as the main guide includes walking running, dancing, swimming, rowing and cycling


STRENGTH - physical effort against body  weight or artificial resistance imposed by weights or other mechanisms. Muscle mass maintenance or gain and energy output( in Ergs)  are the guides for results achieved.


For men and women over 65 even 20 minutes a day physical exercise is highly protective of a variety of disease conditions which includes  carcinoma of the colon (cut by 30% ) Ovarian Cancer, Heart disease. .Diabetes.  Asthma.  Back pain. Arthritis  as well  as depressive illness  Arm raises with resistance bands and chair based aerobics are useful compromises for the over 70’s.. Excessive physical output particularly for the untrained is not without danger. That's over the last 10 years out of 11 million people who take part there have been 42 deaths from acute coronary infarction. But that danger pales with the benefit of properly supervised physical exercise.



The following specific disease processes- Ischaemic Heart Disease, Ischaemic Stroke, Hypertension, Cancer, Diabetes - are each clearly linked with diminished exercise as a single causative factor irrespective of diet and other identified causes ( Tobacco etc). Diminished physical activity even in the absence of diet indiscretion or lack of food due to poverty significantly increases the incidence of disease, particularly in children under 10 years of age.


Even, the response of the immune system to physical exercise shows significant benefit in moderation(helper T cells and Haemoglobin increase) but an increased susceptibility to viral upper respiratory condition (decrease in both T and NK lymphocytes) in Olympic Athletes and footballers at the peak of their preparation for competition due to diminished salivary contained anti viral substances.



Interpretation of dietary intake ( in response to WHO pressure) is often presented by its manufacturers in a deliberately misleading way. A particular item of food actually has :


1 Total calorie value expressed as calories per 100 grams

2 Its component make up : Carbohydrate, Sugar, Protein and respectively 4,4,4 and 8 Calories per 100 grams

3 The weight of that specific food usually ingested

4 The bulk factor as a component of gastric distension

5 Taste education as an addiction to an accustomed diet culturally or individually preferred.


Thus, IF CALORIFIC VALUE ONLY IS EVALUATED, the values at opposite ends of the spectrum are large and this applies to all edibles including fruit, vegetable and drink.

High End Chocolate 546 Calories/100Grams Dates---282 Calories/100Grams

Mangos 60 Calories/100 Grams


Low End Cucumber 15 Calories/100Grams Green Beans 35 Calories/100Grams


But a ‘normal serving’ of chocolate - 4 square(1 gram)=5Calories ...whereas of Dates normal likely 4- so 120 Calories ingested.

High End Drinks TONIC WATER 130 Calories/%. COCA COLA 84 Calories/%

Low End Drinks Per Cup COFFEE 1 Calories/ with milk 8 TEA 3 with milk 10


Thus knowledgeable, sensible choice can play a major part in calorie intake control